Historia Sejmu

The Sejm of 1468 in Piotrków

It was convened in 1468 by king Kazimierz Jagiellonczyk (Casimir Jagiellon) in Piotrków. It was preceded by the meetings of King Casimir with the dignitaries and nobility in the provincial assemblies of Małopolska on 25-30 June 1468 in Wiślica and of Wielkopolska in Koło on 13 July 1468. Read more

Extraordinary Sejms

Convening of extraordinary assemblies in the Polish Commonwealth was provided for in the Henrician Articles of 1573-1576. In case of an emergency, the king was authorized to convene an extraordinary session. Read more


In the Polish Commonwealth, a person acting for the king during an interregnum. For the first time, an interrex was appointed after the death of King Sigismund August in 1572. Read more

The viritim election

The viritim election was a political and legal institution which established the supreme royal authority through personal participation of representatives of the nobility in the election. Read more

Convocation Sejm

A Convocation (see Latin con "co-" and vocatio "summoning") was the first Sejm in the Polish Commonwealth to be held at the beginning of an interregnum. Read more

Camp Sejm

An extraordinary Sejm convened during a wartime mass mobilisation, with the entire nobility assembled in person under their land banners in a war camp (in loco campestri). Read more

Delegation Sejm

The name of two Sejm sessions in the years 1767-1768 and 1773-1775, which were convened in special political circumstances as in both cases the convening, deputies’ composition, and course of the sessions were subject to a strong Russian pressure having the characteristics of a foreign intervention. Read more

Election Sejm

The Election Sejm was another type of the Sejm which was held during an interregnum. It was originally convened to elect the monarch, which was its primary task. Read more

Coronation Sejm

The coronation Sejm was the Sejm convened in the Polish Commonwealth during the session of the election Sejm after the election of the monarch. Read more

Pacification Sejm

The name of an ordinary Sejm is derived from the Latin word pacificatio, i.e. calming down, as is was convened to bring about reconciliation and assuage the mood in the country. Read more

Provincial parliaments

Provincial assemblies, sometimes called general assemblies (conventiones generales), were established at the turn of the 14th and 15th centuries. Read more

Limited Sejms

The limited Sejms were those sessions which were postponed to a later date, leaving in force the resolutions adopted before the postponement and maintaining the validity of the mandates of the members of the chamber of deputies for the period until the end of the suspended term. Read more

The Chamber of Deputies

The Chamber of Deputies was a part of the former Polish Sejm, being an embodiment of one of the sejming estates. The origin of its isolation as a separate part of the sejm may be found in the sejms convened by the king Casimir IV Jagiellon. Read more

The king as the sejming estate

The king of the Commonwealth was the holder of the supreme power. He was recognised, beside the senate and the Chamber of Deputies, as a separate sejming estate, being an integral element of the sejm. Read more

The senate

The senate was established in 15th century, during forming of the Chamber of Deputies in the sejm as the representation of the nobles. In fact, senate was a transformed royal council, which constituted of high officials, appointed by the king. Read more

Henrician Articles

The Henrician Articles were an act of the Electoral Sejm adopted on May 12, 1573 during the interregnum after the death of King Sigismund August. Read more