After the Treaty of Oliva. The extraordinary sejm in Warsaw. 1661.

Sejm was convened at the end of year 1660 but the writ to pre-sejm sejmiks was completed at the beginning of year 1661 with proposal of the king’s court to carry out elections of the next king in form of vivente rege, that is while the ruling monarch, king John II Casimir, was still alive. It was argued for that vivente rege election - in the face of king’s childlessness - might save the Commonwealth from the threats, inevitable in the interregnum period. The pre-sejm sejmiks were held in March and April of 1661. The sejm began proceedings on 2 May 1661. Michał Radziwiłł, Lithuanian Royal Cupbearer, was elected the marshal. During carrying out rugi of the deputies [that is checking the validity of deputy mandates], there was an attempt to get rid of the prince Bogusław Radziwiłł from the sejm, what resulted in a conflict but he was never deprived of his seat in the sejm. The matter of vivente rege met a negative reception of the nobility and was postponed till the next sejm. The resolutions of the Treaty of Oliva were ratified, what ended the long-lasting series of war against the Sweden, mainly the extremely difficult and dangerous for the Commonwealth war waged in years 1655-1660. The agreement with Cossacks was also confirmed, which was signed as a result of the successful campaign [called the “campaign of Cudnów”]. Not all payments for the wojsko kwarciane [quarter army] were done or finished, but on the other hand many ennoblements were carried out, especially to honour the merited Zaporozhian soldiers. The proceedings were finished on 18 July 1661.

See: J. A. Chrapowicki, Diariusz. Część Trzecia: lata 1656-1664 [The diary. Part two. 1656-1664 period.], edited by A. Rachuba, T. Wasilewski, Warszawa 1978, S. Ochmann-Staniszewska, Z. Staniszewski, Sejm Rzeczypospolitej za panowania Jana Kazimierza Wazy. Prawo-doktryna-praktyka, [Sejms of the Commonwealth under the rule of John II Casimir Vasa. Law-doctrine-practice] T. 1, Wrocław 2000, s. 292-322. S. Ochmann, Sejmy z lat 1661-1662. Przegrana batalia o reformę ustroju Rzeczypospolitej [The sejms of years 1661-62. The lost struggle for reforming the political system of the Commonwealth], Wrocław 1977; H. Olszewski, Sejm Rzeczypospolitej epoki oligarchii (1652-1763). Prawo-praktyka-teoria-programy [Sejm of the Commonwealth in the oligarchy era (1652-1763). Law-practice-theory-programs], Poznań 1966;3, Poznań 1966). Ustawodawstwo zob. Volumina Constitutionum, T. 4, cz. 2, Design and layout prepared by Stanisław Grodziski, Marcin Kwiecień, Krzysztof Fokt, Foreword Wacław Uruszczak, Warszawa 2017, s. 89-186.